The subjects (number of reports) of news that have been much reported are related to the winning result such as win(5,039), num- ber(3,851) and bonus(1,365). The news of highly spread subject(connection centrality) was mostly hopeful contents such as jackpot(28,512), great spot(6,871) and luck(3,637) and it was the field with the greatest number of reports. This implies that the intention of the media company to spread relevant information was high and the public has a great interest in the news. This ‘social issue’ news was formed as a ‘public agenda’ as follows. Korean government enacted The Lottery and Lottery Fund Act and established “The Lottery Commission” for the first time in 2004. This was due to public’s strong interest since the first issuing of Lotto in December 2002. This resulted in the information of the legal system and the lottery organization for lottery in 2004. This case was the first example that the gambling industry became the major task of public policy in South Korea. This shows that the lottery industry has high popularity and became a major policy area. In the case of sports betting, the number of news re- ported is very small compared to other gambling industries
The subjects of news have been reported are related to the business scandal such as illegal(296), is- sue(178) and Orion(152). Spread news(connectivity) were news related to manipulation of sports betting results such as football(5,374), detection(1,363), detention(48) and woman(47). It was the field with the smallest number of reports in the gambling industry. The main news was related to Sports Toto’s bid business related to a small num- ber of stakeholder. This means that there is an intention to prevent spread of related news in the first place. On the other hand, the degree of spread is relatively small com pared to other news as it is small news coverage. This kind of news can be understood in the form of ‘mandatory information’ framing to minimize the news that must be disclosed to the public. It can also be interpreted that a company that operates sports betting is well controlled by media. The sales of sports betting are higher than the lottery, but the public is less interested. The reason is that lottery tickets are bought by a lot of people, while sports betting is done by a small number of people. In other words, players of lottery game are distributed widely and bet small money for one game. But, players of sports betting are concentrated in narrow group and bet big money for a lot of games by high gambling characteristics. The number of news reported is high but the degree of spread is relatively low in the horse racing filed
The major subjects are related to the racetrack facilities such as online-racetrack(2,087), work(1,198), racing(1,035) and Busan(1,009, the provincial city which established new race track). The news of highly spread subject (connection centrality) was related to specialty such as jockey(23,233), horse(9,744) and trainer(4,975). This is the intention of me- dia to provide specific information such as publicity or advertisement to the public. However public reaction was not so high for such publicity information. So the news about horse racing stayed at the publicity level. This phenomenon means that horse racing is a special industry targeting a specific customer. The number of news reported is relatively low but the spread of specific news is high about casino
The number of reports is high in the order of gambling place (1,094), Kangwon Land(700, casino company) and foreigners(638). The news about Macau(28,935), local access(41,116) and local permission(15,075) was that connection centrality is high. In other words, media company wants to dismiss the news but became a social issue because public has high interest in the specific issue. This can be understood that a company operating a casino can control the media well but cannot control public’s interest.
Interesting to note, is the result of news analysis about the gambling by the framing characteristics based on the num- ber of reports and the intention of media and the degree of public’s interest based on network connectivity. The analysis of news related to gambling industry is divided into following four categories.
1. advertising publicity,
2. mandatory information,
3. social issue(public agenda),
4. major information.
Among them, social issues is the news that is set to public agenda. In other words, news could be formed as a public policy when media’s intention is strong and public’s reaction is high. It is similar case about consolidation process of agenda setting when Korea Lottery Association was formed in 2006 with strong government’s intention and high publics’ interest. In addition, we can understand that company about sports bets and casinos have controlled media and news well because they are an operator under the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism, which is the government agency that supervises media companies. However no one could control public’s interest on gambling and lottery industry. And there occurs the difference in public’s interest on news by the degree of player’s distribution. The public shows high interest in news related to lottery or casino which has wide player’s distribution. On the other hand, the public shows lower interest in the news related to sports betting or horse racing because player’s distribution is narrow. In this paper, we analyzed the difference and change in the media reporting framing and public perception of the gambling industry based on news for the last 30 years. In addition, we could explore the policy characteristics and reform subjects by analyzing the frequency and connectivity of articles with framing and public’s interest based on the results of semantic network analysis. There was a lot of research on the perception change through semantic net- work analysis in the existing news analysis. However, this paper is the first attempt to study the setting conditions of public agenda by reinterpreting the frequency and connectivity of network as the importance of information and public reaction. We can also provide to government sector new method to measure the public’s cognition about gam- bling industry instead existing survey
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